An In-Depth Report


Adap­tive Con­trast®

There’s a “mag­ic moment” when the heart is beat­ing faster and the blood ves­sels are dilat­ed. Then sud­den­ly, an inrush of oxy­gen…

The Adap­tive Con­trast switch effect cre­ates potent ben­e­fits for all users, from phys­i­cal­ly or immuno­log­i­cal­ly com­pro­mised to elite ath­letes.

How It Works

The Adap­tive Con­trast switch cre­ates simul­ta­ne­ous max­i­mums of cir­cu­la­tion and blood oxy­gen lev­els unachiev­able by any oth­er known method:
  • Blood flow to the tar­get tis­sue is max­i­mized by com­bined exer­tion and hypox­ic chal­lenge; then,
  • A switch to an oxy­gen-rich res­pi­ra­to­ry mix­ture occurs;
  • This results in a max­i­mum dis­solved plas­ma-oxy­gen lev­el and simul­ta­ne­ous­ly, max­i­mum blood flow to the tar­get tis­sue;
  • Max­i­mum tis­sue per­fu­sion and max­i­mum anti-inflam­ma­to­ry effect is thus achieved in the tar­get tis­sue.

Hypoxic Exertion

Hypox­ic, or low oxy­gen exer­tion has been used and stud­ied for many years. Low oxy­gen exer­tion com­pels the body to adapt to low oxy­gen con­di­tions. The adap­tive process cre­ates very spe­cial con­di­tions in the body:
  • Blood flow increas­es to crit­i­cal sys­tems, con­trolled by the degree of adap­tive chal­lenge;
  • Heart rate increas­es (even for non-ath­letes) to increase cir­cu­la­to­ry sys­tem flow;
  • Dilates the vas­cu­lar sys­tem to increase blood flow to dis­tal tis­sue;
  • Breath rate and vol­ume increase to ensure oxy­gen extrac­tion from air;
  • Heart rate increas­es to pump more blood through­out body.

Research of extreme hypox­ic exer­tion shows that the body dra­mat­i­cal­ly blood flow to crit­i­cal organ sys­tems[1] dur­ing low oxy­gen chal­lenge. The tran­si­tion to a preser­va­tion response shows that the cir­cu­la­to­ry sys­tem pro­gres­sive­ly shifts oxy­gen from the whole body to sur­vival pri­or­i­ty sys­tems for ener­gy pro­duc­tion, the liv­er and kid­neys, and for motor and cog­ni­tive func­tion, the brain.

The pref­er­en­tial deliv­ery of blood to crit­i­cal organs dur­ing low-oxy­gen chal­lenge occurs as the body pro­gres­sive­ly redi­rects blood car­ry­ing the increas­ing­ly lim­it­ed oxy­gen sup­ply to the most vital organs. The tran­si­tion has two main process­es:

  • Up-reg­u­la­tion in cir­cu­la­tion and res­pi­ra­tion; as the res­pi­ra­to­ry rate increas­es, the heart beats faster and the vas­cu­lar sys­tem dilates
  • Pro­gres­sive restric­tion of flow to sec­ondary sys­tems and dila­tion of blood flow to crit­i­cal sys­tems.

Dur­ing an ini­tial low oxy­gen chal­lenge, the body goes through three gen­er­al com­pen­sato­ry stages:

  • Stage 1: Up-Reg­u­la­tion: Body-wide blood flow increas­es to com­pen­sate for reduced oxy­gen with increased res­pi­ra­tion and cir­cu­la­tion
  • Stage 2: Reduc­tion to Non-Crit­i­cal Sys­tems: Blood flow decreas­es to the diges­tive sys­tem and organs not crit­i­cal­ly nec­es­sary for fight or flight
  • Stage 3: Preser­va­tion of blood flow to Crit­i­cal Sys­tems: Blood flow is max­i­mized to crit­i­cal sys­tems, i.e., the brain, liv­er and kid­neys.

In each stage, the adap­tive chal­lenge increas­es blood flow to spe­cif­ic organ sys­tems:

  • Stage 1 is the whole body;
  • Stage 2 is crit­i­cal sys­tems less sys­tems not-crit­i­cal for fight or flight: diges­tion, spleen and pan­creas;
  • Stage 3 is only sys­tems crit­i­cal for sur­vival in flight or flight: brain, liv­er and kid­neys.

Adaptive Challenge

LiveO2 AC enables the user to con­trol which body parts receive increased oxy­gen by coor­di­nat­ing oxy­gen switch­es with increased blood flow to tar­get organ sys­tems.

Switch tim­ing is nor­mal­ly indi­cat­ed by:

  • Pulse Rate
  • Pulse Oxime­try
  • Phys­i­cal body aware­ness and per­ceived chal­lenge.

Please see our Pro­to­cols sec­tion regard­ing dif­fer­ent pro­to­cols to deter­mine switch tim­ing.

Oxygen Pulse Potential

Oxy­gen pulse poten­tial reflects an adap­tive capac­i­ty as the body down­shifts from a chal­lenge state to a recov­ery state. Adap­tive con­trast exag­ger­ates both the chal­lenge and the recov­ery ele­ments to cre­ate con­di­tions of max­i­mum achiev­able oxy­gena­tion. This mod­el lever­ages two dis­tinct switch­ing mech­a­nisms:
  • Hypox­ic Adap­tive — as an auto-reg­u­la­to­ry process where the body pref­er­en­tial­ly directs blood flow to the crit­i­cal organs;
  • Endothe­lial switch­ing — where the body revers­es endothe­lial inflam­ma­tion when dis­solved oxy­gen in blood plas­ma exceeds 12 cc/L (Ardenne).

The oxy­gen pulse poten­tial mod­el simul­ta­ne­ous­ly acti­vates and uti­lizes these switch­es. The cere­bral switch mech­a­nism uti­lizes the max­i­mum exam­ple of the switch process to illus­trate the mech­a­nism. The author asserts two less­er lev­els of switch­ing that address the whole body, and exer­tion crit­i­cal organ sys­tems.

The Cerebral Switch

Cere­bral blood flow stud­ies show that under hypox­ic chal­lenge con­di­tions, where Arte­r­i­al Blood Pres­sure exceeds 180mm, the body ini­ti­ates a shift in blood flow to the brain.
Blood Flow to Brain vs. Arterial Blood Pressure The near-ver­ti­cal green line shows the auto-reg­u­la­to­ry break­through where the body approx­i­mate­ly quadru­ples cere­bral blood flow (CBF) as arte­r­i­al blood pres­sure (ABP) tran­si­tions through 190mmHg. Flow data pub­lished in Hyper­ten­sion 2007; 49:334–340.

The sim­pli­fied mes­sage of the chart is that the body will send 3–4 times more blood to the brain when blood oxy­gen decreas­es. This cir­cu­la­to­ry thresh­old occurs on LiveO2-AC and PO2 drops below about 80% for LiveO2-AC users.

These adap­tive shifts reflect com­pen­sa­tion where the body increas­es the quan­ti­ty of blood to an organ sys­tem to com­pen­sate for reduced oxy­gen con­cen­tra­tion. The cere­bral switch reflects abrupt com­pen­sa­tion to pre­serve sur­vival enabling sys­tems.

The Ardenne Switch

The cor­re­spond­ing chart below (Ardenne) shows the plas­ma oxy­gen sat­u­ra­tion curve. 
Ardenne Plasma Saturation Curve The green range (upper right) illus­trates the plas­ma oxy­gen sat­u­ra­tion lev­els achieved by LiveO2 while using +O2 set­ting.

The hor­i­zon­tal yel­low line at the bot­tom shows the nor­mal lev­el of oxy­gen dis­solved in plas­ma. The green hor­i­zon­tal line shows the anti-inflam­ma­to­ry sat­u­ra­tion lev­el required to reverse endothe­lial inflam­ma­tion. (hor­i­zon­tal lines not shown yet)

The chal­lenge of this graph is that the oxy­genat­ed blood may not have enough pulse force to pen­e­trate tis­sue. In tra­di­tion­al EWOT and LiveO2 use, con­tin­u­ous sup­ply of oxy­gen both lim­its the pulse and inhibits vas­cu­lar dila­tion result­ing in reduced per­fu­sion poten­tial of high­ly oxy­genat­ed blood.

The pri­ma­ry attribute of the LiveO2 oxy­gena­tion is that the body can achieve nov­el lev­els of plas­ma oxy­gen sat­u­ra­tion up to 65 ml/L O2, which is 21 times nor­mal and 5.41 times the anti-inflam­ma­to­ry thresh­old.

Oxygen Pulse Switching

Oxy­gen Pulse Switch­ing uses both of these effects simul­ta­ne­ous­ly to max­i­mize oxy­gena­tion of tar­get tis­sue. When the user switch­es to oxy­gen-rich air from oxy­gen-poor air with blood flow pat­tern, there is an adap­tive peri­od where the tis­sue receives Ardenne oxy­gen con­cen­tra­tions and max­i­mum flow.

The process is sim­ple:

  1.  A user exerts with low-oxy­gen air to max­i­mize blood flow to a desired tis­sue set.
  2. Then the user switch­es to oxy­gen-rich air
  3. The user main­tains, or increas­es exer­tion, to main­tain blood flow to the tar­get tis­sue.
  4. This deliv­ers max­i­mum oxy­gen by com­bined max­i­mum flow and max­i­mum plas­ma sat­u­ra­tion.

Tis­sue iso­la­tion is deter­mined by the blood flow pat­tern, which is deter­mined by the degree of hypox­ic exer­tion at the time of the switch.

Oxygen Pulsing

Puls­ing enables a user to use oxy­gen and pro­long a blood flow pat­tern by using short bursts of oxy­gen, enough for a par­tial recov­ery, but not enough to drop out of the hypox­ic blood flow pat­tern.

The pulse method uses brief puls­es of oxy­gen-rich air, about 5 breaths, dur­ing hypox­ic exer­tion, to deliv­er recur­ring bursts of oxy­gen-rich blood to the tar­get tis­sue. Short puls­es do not appear to dis­rupt hypox­ic blood flow pat­terns.

Oxygen Pushing

The stronger users will nat­u­ral­ly ini­ti­ate an oxy­gen push. This is an urge-dri­ven pat­tern where users spon­ta­neous­ly max­i­mize oxy­gen deliv­ery dur­ing self-esca­lat­ed exer­tion.

The method starts with an hypox­ic sprint then switch­es to high-oxy­gen air. Many phys­i­cal­ly-able users will feel the urge to ramp exer­tion and sus­tain ele­vat­ed out­put for a pro­longed peri­od. At com­ple­tion, they report feel­ing excel­lent with no fatigue.

The oxy­gen push ten­den­cy is a reflex response of the user to estab­lish and main­tain max­i­mum oxy­gena­tion.

Quantification of Oxygen Pulse Potential

A switch to oxy­gen-rich air dur­ing ele­vat­ed blood flow cre­ates a tem­po­rary pulse of oxy­gen to the tar­get tis­sue.
The oxy­gen pulse is the prod­uct of both the extra blood flow, pro­voked by the hypox­ic chal­lenge, mul­ti­plied by the extra oxy­gen con­cen­tra­tion, enabled by the res­pi­ra­to­ry tur­bu­lence and extra par­tial pres­sure of oxy­gen in the lungs.

Oxy­gen Pulse = Extra Blood Flow x Extra Oxy­gen Con­cen­tra­tion

The Oxy­gen Pulse per­sists until the body reduces blood flow to the region dur­ing nat­ur­al recov­ery until the body nor­mal­izes blood flow to the affect­ed region.

Personal Potential

The plas­ma per­fu­sion poten­tial has a range that is spe­cif­ic to the user.  The poten­tial varies wide­ly depend­ing on the fit­ness lev­el of the user.  Near­ly all users achieve bet­ter oxy­gena­tion using adap­tive con­trast.

Challenged Users Potential

On the low end, phys­i­cal­ly chal­lenged users with a low oxy­gen air chal­lenge can achieve blood flow lev­els approx­i­mate­ly dou­ble of what they can achieve with high oxy­gen air alone.

This dou­bling of flow explains the con­sis­tent obser­va­tion that even phys­i­cal­ly chal­lenged Adap­tive Con­trast users achieve dou­ble the response than with LiveO2.

Athletic Users Potential

More phys­i­cal­ly fit users have an hypox­ic chal­lenge tol­er­ance that enables them to reach much high­er sys­temic and core organ sys­tem blood flow lev­els. These high­er lev­els amount to an abil­i­ty to send even more blood to the brain, liv­er and kid­neys, in response to hypox­ic exer­tion chal­lenge.

Ele­vat­ed fit­ness lev­els enable high­er pulse and res­pi­ra­tion lev­els. These high­er lev­els enable fit users to approx­i­mate max­i­mal dis­solved plas­ma oxy­gen lev­els, per Ardenne sat­u­ra­tion charts, espe­cial­ly when pulse and res­pi­ra­tion are poten­ti­at­ed by hypox­ic chal­lenge.

The author asserts these users have oxy­gen per­fu­sion poten­tials rang­ing up to 24-times the Ardenne anti-inflam­ma­to­ry lev­els. This is the prob­a­ble effec­tor mech­a­nism of dra­mat­ic improve­ments in neu­ro­log­i­cal per­for­mance post stress and post trau­ma.


Oxy­gen pulse poten­tial with adap­tive con­trast sys­tems has a range. The range is indi­cat­ed by the hypox­ic flow poten­tial of the user, mul­ti­plied by the res­pi­ra­to­ry capac­i­ty of the user.

The appar­ent range is 2x for phys­i­cal­ly chal­lenged users and up to 24x for phys­i­cal­ly fit users. There is also a ten­den­cy for phys­i­cal­ly chal­lenged users to achieve accel­er­at­ed fit­ness and increased capac­i­ty at an unprece­dent­ed rate.[3]

This oxy­gen pulse poten­tial cre­ates a pulse of oxy­gen to any body part with enhanced blood flow as a prod­uct of mul­ti­ple effects:

  • An adap­tive response to hypox­ic exer­tion
  • Times any increase in blood flow due to exer­tion
  • Times any increase in blood flow due to nutri­ents
  • To any tar­get tis­sue.

The sum of these fac­tors cre­ate the unprece­dent­ed abil­i­ty to enhance oxy­gena­tion of mus­cles, organs and organ sys­tems.

Adaptive Contrast Protocol Model

This com­bi­na­tion of effects sug­gests three dif­fer­ent pro­to­col lev­els which uti­lize appar­ent blood flow mod­els that occur from adap­tive chal­lenge. Each lev­el lever­ages increased blood flow and pulse pres­sure to all or part of the body.

Esca­la­tion of the hypox­ic chal­lenge directs more blood to more exer­tion-crit­i­cal body sys­tems.

Level 1: Whole Body Up-Regulation

This occurs when the body is aer­o­bic with mod­er­ate­ly hypox­ic con­di­tions or under exer­tion.


  • Pulse Oxime­ter reads over 85%
  • Mild to mod­er­ate exer­tion dis­tress
  • Easy to increase exer­tion lev­el

In this stage, the body has increased res­pi­ra­tion and blood flow but is able to main­tain most body func­tions:

  • Breathe more air
  • Pump more blood
  • Opens vas­cu­lar sys­tem
  • Mild exer­tion dis­tress

A switch to oxy­gen at this stage will cre­ate an increase in whole-body oxy­gen which appears to be about dou­ble what using LiveO2 pro­duces.

Level 2: Critical Systems Budget

This occurs when the body is sub-crit­i­cal­ly hypox­ic or under enhanced exer­tion.


  • Mod­er­ate exer­tion dis­com­fort
  • Pulse Oxime­ter reads 80–85%
  • Uncom­fort­able but tol­er­a­ble exer­tion dis­tress
  • Chal­leng­ing to increase exer­tion lev­el

At this stage, the body has begun to pri­or­i­tize blood flow to active mus­cle groups and to crit­i­cal organ sys­tems and cor­re­spond­ing­ly reduced blood flow to non-crit­i­cal per­for­mance sys­tems:

  • The spleen has released a frac­tion of the blood flow to the blood­stream
  • The body has reduced blood flow to the diges­tive sys­tem, stom­ach, intestines and pan­creas
  • The body has increased blood flow to the brain, liv­er and kid­neys

Level 3: The “Magic Moment”

Users capa­ble of ini­ti­at­ing Cere­bral Switch dur­ing hypox­ic exer­tion, and then trig­ger the Ardenne Switch, achieve Mag­ic Moment Brain Oxy­gena­tion.

This effect usu­al­ly results in dra­mat­ic improve­ment in cog­ni­tive and neu­ro­log­i­cal per­for­mance as mea­sured by neu­ro­log­i­cal tests. They also assert durable improve­ments in men­tal state, calm­ness, and life­time opti­mal cog­ni­tive per­for­mance.

Research lit­er­a­ture sug­gests the “mag­ic moment” affects the liv­er and kid­neys[1]. The author sug­gests that the mag­ic moment effect on liv­er oxy­gena­tion reflects nov­el ben­e­fit poten­tial in a wide range of health con­di­tions involv­ing liv­er func­tion and detox­i­fi­ca­tion.

The author expe­ri­ences steps lead­ing to the Mag­ic Moment expe­ri­ence as:

  • Esca­lat­ing exer­tion dis­com­fort
  • Pulse Oxime­ter drops below 80%
  • Onset of dizzi­ness last­ing 30–60 sec­onds
  • Feel­ing of increased ener­gy even though oper­at­ing at high exer­tion with low oxy­gen 1–3 min­utes
  • Skin may feel cool and/or clam­my dur­ing pro­longed exer­tion

Author’s Interpretation

As the body pri­or­i­tizes blood flow to active mus­cle groups and crit­i­cal organ sys­tems, it reduces blood flow to non-crit­i­cal sys­tems:
  • The spleen releas­es a major­i­ty of the blood flow to the blood­stream*
  • The body reduces blood flow to the diges­tive sys­tem, stom­ach, intestines, pan­creas and even­tu­al­ly the skin
  • Extra blood flow to the brain cre­ates a sense of well-being and clar­i­ty.


Please see the Pro­to­col Libraries for spe­cif­ic pro­to­cols that uti­lize these con­di­tions of enhanced blood flow.
  • Enhanced Whole Body Detox (com­ing soon)
  • Core Sys­tems Detox (com­ing soon)
  • BrainO2 (com­ing soon)


* Spleen: The author asserts that reduc­tion in blood flow to the spleen is a like­ly result of hypox­ic com­pen­sa­tion where the spleen’s blood reserve goes into cir­cu­la­tion to increase oxy­gen trans­port capac­i­ty (search­ing for cor­rob­o­ra­tive ref­er­ences).
[1] and
[2] Oxy­gen Mul­ti­step Ther­a­py and
[3] See VO2-Max test results.